Key Studies on Resveratrol
- Resveratrol is recognised as a good antioxidant and was shown to reduce Glutamate induced oxidation by increasing Glutamate intake. (R1)
- It is able to take up a variety of neuroprotective roles due to its anti-oxidant properties (reduce mitochondria from oxidative stress), inhibits and controls the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and Beta-amyloid toxicity (by destabilising the Beta-amyloid formation). (R2)
- 3 weeks of RSV supplementation showed that non-human primate gray mouse lemur exhibited an increase in active-wake time, implying the regulatory effect of RSV on the sleep-wake cycle. (R3)
How it works:
- Antioxidant nature: RSV is a good antioxidant as it is able to scavenge free radicals and upregulates antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase. It was also able to rescue hippocampal neurons exposed to Nitric oxide due to its anti-oxidant nature. (R4)
- RSV modulates Quinone reductase 2 (QR2), an enzyme which enhances the production of activated Quinone and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus resisting oxidative-stress induced neuronal cell death. (R5)
- Resveratrol inhibits the pro-inflammatory molecules known as cyclooxygenases, particularly cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1), an enzyme involved in the production of pro-inflammatory molecules known as cytokines. Jin et al. showed that resveratrol exerted an in vivo neuroprotective action against toxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and this effect was associated with its ability to reduce expression of COX-2 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the substantial nigra. (R6)
- It has also been shown that resveratrol (15–60 μM) protected against dopaminergic neuronal death induced by LPS by attenuating the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB signalling pathways. (R7)
- R1. de Almeida, L. M.; Pineiro, C. C.; Leite, M. C.; Brolese, G.; Tramontina, F.; Feoli, A. M.; Gottfried, C.; Goncalves, C. A., Resveratrol increases glutamate uptake, glutathione content, and S100B secretion in cortical astrocyte cultures. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2007, 27 (5), 661-8.
- R2. (a) Richard, T.; Poupard, P.; Nassra, M.; Papastamoulis, Y.; Iglesias, M. L.; Krisa, S.; Waffo-Teguo, P.; Merillon, J. M.; Monti, J. P., Protective effect of epsilon-viniferin on beta-amyloid peptide aggregation investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Bioorg Med Chem 2011, 19 (10), 3152-5; (b) Bastianetto, S.; Menard, C.; Quirion, R., Neuroprotective action of resveratrol. Biochimica et biophysica acta 2015, 1852 (6), 1195-201.
- R3. Pifferi, F.; Rahman, A.; Languille, S.; Auffret, A.; Babiloni, C.; Blin, O.; Lamberty, Y.; Richardson, J. C.; Aujard, F., Effects of dietary resveratrol on the sleep-wake cycle in the non-human primate gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Chronobiology international 2012, 29 (3), 261-70.
- R4. Bastianetto, S.; Zheng, W. H.; Quirion, R., Neuroprotective abilities of resveratrol and other red wine constituents against nitric oxide-related toxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Br J Pharmacol 2000, 131 (4), 711-20.
- R5. Vella, F.; Ferry, G.; Delagrange, P.; Boutin, J. A., NRH:quinone reductase 2: an enzyme of surprises and mysteries. Biochem Pharmacol 2005, 71 (1-2), 1-12.
- R6. Jin, F.; Wu, Q.; Lu, Y. F.; Gong, Q. H.; Shi, J. S., Neuroprotective effect of resveratrol on 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2008, 600 (1-3), 78-82.
- R7. Zhang, F.; Liu, J.; Shi, J. S., Anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain: role of resveratrol in microglial activation. Eur J Pharmacol 2010, 636 (1-3), 1-7.